Total Bilirubin () is the sum of conjugated and unconjugated serum bilirubin. One of the byproducts of red blood cell breakdown is bilirubin. Bilirubin is made in the bone marrow, liver, or spleen and is transported by albumin to the liver in the form of unconjugated bilirubin. Once in the liver, sugars bind to the unconjugated bilirubin, turning it to conjugated bilirubin. It is then excreted from the gall bladder into the small intestine. Eventually, it is excreted in the feces or urine. Excess bilirubin causes a yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes called jaundice.
Dozens of clinical trials and published studies have shown that SCFAs control the entire metabolic process. SCFAs regulate the balance between fatty acid synthesis (making of fat), fatty acid oxidation (burning of fat), and lipolysis (breaking down and absorption of fat from diet) in the body. Burning of fat is activated by SCFAs, while production of stored fat and lipolysis are inhibited. The net result is a reduction of the concentrations of free fatty acids in plasma and a decrease in body weight. The studies published on SCFAs show a direct effect in the increased SCFA formation in the gut by good bacteria and their stimulation of fat burning, increased fat loss and reduction in fat accumulation. This is the most direct evidence there is for changing someone's metabolism. These changes are conducted at the genome level where SCFAs can actually turn on fat-burning genes and turn off fat-storage genes. That is the true goal for permanent weight loss, the restoration of gene expression that controls how one’s body responds to food. With this approach we are changing the epigenetics (modification of gene expression) of metabolism. We are affecting gene expression to favor a lean body. This approach is a much more powerful and permanent approach than the standard weight loss formulation of calculating calories in versus calories out.