Lactones contribute significantly to the flavor of fruit, and of unfermented and fermented dairy products,  and are therefore used as flavors and fragrances.  Some examples are γ-decalactone (4-decanolide), which has a characteristic peach flavor;  δ-decalactone (5-decanolide), which has a creamy coconut/peach flavour; γ-dodecalactone (4-dodecanolide), which also has a coconut/fruity flavor,  a description which also fits γ-octalactone (4-octanolide),  although it also has a herbaceous character;  γ-nonalactone , which has an intense coconut flavor of this series, despite not occurring in coconut,  and γ-undecalactone .
Several models have been proposed to determine the severity of a patient's alcoholic hepatitis [ 7,8 ]. The Maddrey discriminant function and the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score are the most commonly used to help identify patients who are more likely to benefit from pharmacologic therapy. Other validated scores include the Glasgow alcoholic hepatitis score, the ABIC score (which includes age, serum bilirubin, international normalized ratio, and serum creatinine), and the Lille score (which is used to determine if a patient is responding to treatment) [ 7,9,10 ]. (See 'Glucocorticoids' below.)